Diets for Inflammatory Bowel Disease
To gather information on the different types of diets that are recommended by specialists for Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBS), especially focused on Crohn's Disease, including their benefits, contraindications, and indications. The information will be used to understand the management of this disease.
According to the Crohn's & Colitis Foundation and recent articles, the diets that can be helpful to manage an inflammatory bowel disease, including Crohn's Disease, are the carbohydrate exclusion diet, the Mediterranean diet, the low-fiber diet, the low-FODMAP (Fermentable, Oligo-, Di-, Monosaccharides, and Polyols) diet, and the gluten-free diet.
Carbohydrate Exclusion Diet
- This diet limits or totally excludes carbohydrates like grains, fiber, and sugars. The Specific Carbohydrate Diet (SCD), which is currently being studied by the Crohn’s & Colitis Foundation, eliminates refined and processed foods, soy, lactose, granulated sugar, grains, potatoes, okra, and corn, among other foods.
- This diet is low in "B vitamins, calcium, vitamin D, and vitamin E," therefore it may require supplementation.
- Contraindications for the carbohydrate exclusion diet include preexisting renal disease, cardiovascular disease, "pancreatitis, liver failure, disorders of fat metabolism, primary carnitine deficiency, carnitine palmitoyltransferase deficiency, carnitine translocase deficiency, porphyrias, or pyruvate kinase deficiency."
- The benefits of this diet include reduction of inflammation, improvement in cardiometabolic, improvement in anthropometric markers (weight loss and waist circumference), and increased energy expenditure.
- The carbohydrate exclution diet is indicated for Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBS), type 2-diabetes, neurological disorders, obesity, metabolic syndrome, and various cancers.
- Despite its benefits, this diet may be not recommended by some dietitians as it does not contain essential vitamins and minerals, the body may not get enough fiber, and patients may experience mental fatigue.
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