Research Outline

India: A Case Study


To provide details of India's history and its current weaknesses; compared to another, similar country.

Early Findings

India has a long and rich history through its people, even though it recently gained its independence from Great Britain in 1947. Several weaknesses or issues India confronts to this day are widely discussed in the public forum. Two critical issues in this day and age of environmental stewardship include the country's dealing with air quality and water shortages, as well as human rights issues under the current Modi administration.


  • Memphis Tours provides some very basic information about India, including a brief history. The tour company details, "Located in the continent of Asia, India covers 2,973,193 square kilometers of land and 314,070 square kilometers of water, making it the 7th largest nation in the world with a total area of 3,287,263 square kilometers. Surrounded by Bhutan, Nepal, and Bangladesh to the North East, China to the North, Pakistan to the North West and Sri Lanka of the South East coast."
  • Their brief history of India: "India's social, economic, and cultural configurations are the products of a long process of regional expansion. Indian history begins with the birth of the Indus Valley Civilization and the coming of the Aryans. These two phases are usually described as the pre-Vedic and Vedic age. Hinduism arose in the Vedic period. The fifth-century saw the unification of India under Ashoka, who had converted to Buddhism, and it is in his reign that Buddhism spread in many parts of Asia. In the eighth century, Islam came to India for the first time and by the eleventh century had firmly established itself in India as a political force. It resulted in the formation of the Delhi Sultanate, which was finally succeeded by the Mughal Empire, under which India once again achieved a large measure of political unity. "
  • They continue, "It was in the 17th century that the Europeans came to India. This coincided with the disintegration of the Mughal Empire, paving the way for regional states. In the contest for supremacy, the English emerged 'victors'. The Rebellion of 1857-58, which sought to restore Indian supremacy, was crushed; and with the subsequent crowning of Victoria as Empress of India, the incorporation of India into the empire was complete. It was followed by India's struggle for independence, which (resulted) in the year 1947." Further, more complete details are available on the touring company's website.
  • A detailed account of India and Pakistan's independence is provided by History, and its main page for India contains links to various other topics.
  • Anshika Jain wrote an article in May of last year detailing India's history from a unique perspective: archaeology.
  • While, Akhilesh Pillalamarri provides a unique look into the history of India's people through the use of present day genealogical technology.
  • The Brookings Institute details the current aspects of a long-running conflict between India and Nepal, while also explaining the history of events that have led to today's issue.
  • The Center for Arms Control and Non-Proliferation provides a very complex account of the ongoing hostilities between India and Pakistan.


  • The human rights issue confronting India is detailed by Foreign Policy in stating, "New Delhi has a long history of harassing international NGOs. But under Modi, things may reach a tipping point." Human rights in India under current leader Modi is an oft discussed issue over the past year plus, and further sources of information are readily found through direct research.
  • Among other weaknesses India has to deal with are water shortages and air quality. Among the plethora of sources available publicly is an article posted by Reuters detailing the water shortage.
  • Full discussions and details about the air quality issue India faces may be found here and here.