Prepared for francis w. | Delivered January 29, 2020
To build a timeline of electric vehicles to understand the timing of electrification disruption.
According to the US Energy Department, the first (primitive) electric vehicles were developed in the
. In 1898, they first debuted in the US.
These early electric cars were quite popular for the
first two decades
of the 20th century, especially as Thomas Edison worked to build better batteries.
The first hybrid car was made by
However, when Ford introduced the
, electric vehicles began to decline. When gas prices rose astronomincally in the 1960s-70s, interested was renewed in electric vehicles and manufacturers began to build prototypes and small-scale releases of certain EVs.
This was also
the Clean Air Act of 1970 and the Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Research, Development, and Demonstration Act, which funded research on EVs.
In 1980, the cobalt-oxide cathode is
. This is the main component for lithium-ion batteries, which enabled all sorts of consumer electronics (including EVs).
Interest waned again as gas price fell, but it was renewed again in the
as new federal and state regulations on emissions incentivized their creation and adoption. For example, California passed the Zero Emissions Vehicles Mandate, requiring automakers to sell a certain number of ZEVs each year.
Toyota made the first modern mass-produced hybird, the
, in 2000.
The first major release of a modern electric car was
, US infrastructure changed drastically to encourage the adoption of EVs. Over 18,000 new residential and commercial charge points were installed.
McKinsey predicts that, "total charging-energy demand for the EV vehicle population across China, Europe, and the United States could grow dramatically from 2020 to 2030, increasing from roughly 20 billion kilowatt-hours to about 280 billion kilowatt-hours."
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