According to the American Journal of Managed Care, the potential effects of fear include "immune system dysfunction
, endocrine system dysfunction
, autonomic nervous system alterations
, sleep/wake cycle disruption
, eating disorders
, and alterations in hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis."
Additionally, chronic fear also has potential effects on emotional health. These effects include "dissociation from self
, unable to have loving feelings
, learned helplessness
, phobic anxiety
, mood swings
, and obsessive-compulsive thoughts."