Prepared for Juan M. | Delivered September 17, 2019
Healthcare Outlook - Genes, Environment, and Lifestyle
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To obtain insights on how genes, the environment, and lifestyle will impact future health costs for the purposes of creating a presentation.
Preliminary research indicates that genes, the environment, and lifestyle currently have a major impact on health costs and will continue to do so in the future unless interventions are made.
According to a research study published in Nature, "pediatric inpatients with diagnostic codes linked to genetic disease have a significant and disproportionate
impact on resources and costs
in the US health-care system." This suggests that genetic diseases will continue to cost more than other health issues.
Patients with suspected genetic diseases are "
of health care" and correspond to an additional
$12,000 to $77,000
per discharge compared with people who do not have genetic diseases.
Overall, patients with indications of genetic disease "showed a mean incremental total cost per discharge of
, suggesting that more complex cases result in higher health-care utilization."
Of pediatric discharges in 2012,
2.6% to 14%
were for genetic disease, but the costs associated with those discharges represented
11% to 46%
of the pediatric "
While gene therapy could potentially "positively affect millions of lives," they are expected to be "
, particularly if they are administered as single or short-term treatments, and are likely to pose major affordability challenges."
Health budgets of public insurers are already strained and "based on the initial pricing experience with gene therapy in Europe, should a growing number of gene therapies come into use at costs of US$1–2 million, the cumulative budget impact would be very substantial, and
Even if cost savings with gene therapy are realized over time by preventing long-term care, "the health system will be confronted with the challenge of absorbing upfront treatment prices over
per patient for even a relatively small number of patients."
A 2018 study indicated that there will be
cases of non-communicable diseases associated with air pollution by 2035, which makes "air pollution an important
public health priority
Air pollution is currently the "leading environmental cause of early death—contributing to the equivalent of
of all deaths globally and an estimated
premature deaths each year in the UK."
In the UK, healthcare costs related to air pollution are estimated to be between
£8.5 billion and £20.2 billion
In 2015, "diseases caused by air, water and soil pollution were responsible for
premature deaths, that is
of all global death."
Almost all of these deaths (
) were in poorer nations, but the global financial costs of pollution are estimated at
U.S. health care costs for chronic diseases such as heart disease, cancer, diabetes, and Alzheimer’s reached $1.1 trillion in 2016.
The lifestyle factors of being overweight or obese accounted for
of the total chronic health care costs, while
was attributed to cigarette smoking, and
was attributed to excessive alcohol drinking.
As of 2015, nearly
of Americans are considered obese and another
are considered overweight. Research has "established a strong link between
obesity and chronic diseases
such as heart disease, kidney disease, and several types of cancers."
The Partnership to Fight Chronic Disease estimates that
Americans will have three or more chronic conditions by 2030.
A 2017 study found that healthy lifestyles lead to an
of preventive health services, and did not show a significant decrease in outpatient visits.
According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, in 2010,
of all healthcare spending "went toward people with one or more chronic conditions."
Complete Health Improvement Program
(CHIP), which is an initiative that promotes a health lifestyle, reduced outpatient medical visits of participants between
11% and 25%
over a year when implemented as a workplace program.
According to Steve Burd, founder and CEO of Burd Health, indicated he was able to lower his company's healthcare costs by
and cut employees' costs by
with the implementation of "voluntary, company-wide wellness initiatives that provided monetary incentives for maintaining healthy lifestyles."
A study funded by the
National Dairy Council
found that increasing Americans' adherence to healthy diet patterns by 20% could "
save more than $20 billion
in direct and indirect costs."
Meal delivery programs like Meals on Wheels
reduce the healthcare costs
in Medicare and Medicaid beneficiaries.