Prepared for stellaibanga12 | Delivered November 20, 2019
Hazards of Hard Water
To find out the harmful effects of tap water, complemented by a look at the hazards of hard water.
of water is determined by the amount of calcium and magnesium found within it.
Hazards of hard water include
(e.g., stained bathtubs, scales in the sink) and sometimes damage to personal property like
Hard water is also associated with causing appliances to break (
In a 2003, heavily-cited document, the World Health Organization noted the following: "There
does not appear to be
any convincing evidence that water hardness causes adverse health effects in humans. In contrast, the results of a number of epidemiological studies have suggested that water hardness may protect against disease. However, the available data are inadequate to prove any causal association."
However, other sources give pushback about this WHO statement and claim hard water does have
effects on health (e.g., dry skin, eczema, skin irritation, coarser
texture, thinning hair/hair loss, and kidney stones).
appears to be the most noted negative effect of hard water.
Hard water is also noted to be
at cleaning because calcium and magnesium ions in the water react to chemicals in the soap resulting in scum and less cleansing potency.
of Americans live with hard water.
The overall health effects of hard water are
. Some studies show correlation with childhood eczema, others show benefits of hard water being protective against gastric, colon, rectal, esophageal and ovarian cancers. Still, others correlate it with kidney stones, and no source definitely says it is bad for humans.
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