The majority of data uncovered within the discovery phase is theoretical versus practical, academic and/or scholarly based, and in many instances blocked behind paywalls and therefore limited within the public domain.
Articles and Studies
- A June 2020 study examining the roles of effectuation and causation in performance concluded that "effectuation is relevant for both experts and novices".
- Sayem Hossain, with Hot Incubator, states "effectuation processes are more effective when the future is unpredictable. Therefore, the theory of effectuation is more relevant to examine the behavior of the social entrepreneurs".
- Sara Whiffen, the Founder & Managing Partner of Insights Ignited LLC, asserts "Effectuation is best used during times of uncertainty. When data is not available or the market is giving you mixed signals, try Effectuating".
- A recent study published in the Iberoamerican Journal of Strategic Management (IJSM) found "there are significant differences between causal and effectual approaches to entrepreneurship and factors that motivate the participation in networks. The causal and effectual logic are not mutually exclusive; however, the intensity in each one entailed differences in the factors that motivate entrepreneurs to engage in networks. The research shows that causal and effectual entrepreneurs were motivated to participate in networks focusing mainly on benefits for the company."
- The website for the Society of Effectual Action has listed a collection of scholarly research of effectuation. Of note, no published research has been added to this site since 2016 and those listed were published between 2006 and 2016. Some of these papers include:
As much of what was found during the discovery phase was academic research looking at the concept or theory of effectuation as it applies to entrepreneurs. It is suggested that a literature review be conducted to provide an overview of articles with highlights to any relevant statistics found within each published paper. Several of these papers were found to be paywalled on initial review, though it is anticipated that at least five studies and/or papers can be located to provide this review.