According to this article, a significant outcome of the court ruling has been the creation of super political action committees (super PACs). These "are organizations that raise and spend money for campaigns that support or oppose political candidates, legislation, or ballot initiatives."
Prior to the ruling, traditional PACs had contribution limits "both in terms of what they can receive from individuals and what they can give to candidates." After the ruling, "outside groups could accept unlimited contributions from both individual donors and corporations" as long as this was not given directly to the candidates. These outside groups were labeled as super PACs and were "permitted to spend money on independently produced ads and on other communications that promote or attack specific candidates."
While super PACs are required to disclose their donors, these donors can include "dark money groups." Dark money is defined as "election-related spending where the source is secret." This often comes from "nonprofits that are not required to disclose their donors."